In this post we’ll take a look at the backtest results of opening one SPX short put 7 DTE leveraged position each day the s1 signal suggests that it’s optimal to do so, from Jan 3 2007 through July 30 2021, and see if there are any discernible trends.
The s1 signal is a boolean (TRUE / FALSE) daily indicator that attempts to identify the days in which short put and short vertical put positions on SPX, SPY, /ES, MES and XSP are most likely to be profitable at expiration and limits order entry to only those days.
- when the daily s1 signal = TRUE, a position is opened on the respective trading day
- when the daily s1 signal = FALSE, no position is opened that day and the portfolio sits inactive
Aggregate performance of the s1 signal is explored in more detail in other, non-paywalled s1 signal studies. In particular, different durations (0-3 DTE, 7 DTE, 45 DTE and LEAPS), different strategies (uncovered and verticals) different instruments (calls and puts) and different sides (buying vs selling) are covered.
Signals are fine and dandy but a signal-based strategy in isolation isn’t helpful. Let’s compare it against two standard benchmarks and see how it performs:
- SPY buy/hold (total return) | 100% allocation, no leverage
- SPX Short Put 7 DTE position opened every trading day | 100% max margin utilization target, 5x leverage
There are 10 backtests in this study evaluating over 25,300 SPX short put 7 DTE leveraged trades.
Let’s dive in!
The s1 signal yielded a 64.1% improvement in capital efficiency over “market-agnostic” 7 DTE daily short put strats. The s1 signal was able to:
- realize up to 91% of the total return
- with nearly half as many trades
- capturing up to 60% more premium per trade
- boosting sharpe ratio by up to 66%
The s1 signals’s 30D and 50D short put 7 DTE strats outperformed buy/hold SPY with regard to:
- total return
- risk-adjusted return
- annualized volatility
- max drawdown
- max drawdown duration
The s1 signal outperformed a comparable “market agnostic” daily short put strategy with regard to:
- risk-adjusted return
- annualized volatility
- max drawdown
- win rate
- premium capture
- profit spent on commission
- Symbol: SPX
- Strategy: Short Put
- Days Till Expiration: 7 DTE +/- 4, closest to 7
- Start Date: 2007-01-03
- End Date: 2021-07-30
- Positions opened per trade: 1
- Entry Days: each trading day in which s1 signal = TRUE
- Entry Signal: s1 signal
- Timing 3:46pm ET
- Strike Selection
- 5 delta +/- 4.5, closest to 5
- 10 delta +/- 5, closest to 10
- 16 delta +/- 6, closest to 16
- 30 delta +/- 8, closest to 30
- 50 delta +/- 8, closest to 50
- Trade Entry
- 5D short put
- 10D short put
- 16D short put
- 30D short put
- 50D short put
- Trade Exit
- Hold till expiration
- Max Margin Utilization Target (short option strats only): 100% | 5x leverage
- Max Drawdown Target: 99% | account value shall not go negative
- Margin requirements are always satisfied
- Margin calls never occur
- Margin requirement for short CALL and PUT positions is 20% of notional
- Margin requirement for short STRADDLE and STRANGLE positions is 20% of the larger strike
- Margin requirement for short VERTICAL SPREAD positions is the difference between the strikes
- Early assignment never occurs
- Prices are in USD
- Prices are nominal (not adjusted for inflation)
- All statistics are pre-tax, where applicable
- Margin collateral is invested in 3mo US treasuries and earns interest daily
- Assignment P/L is calculated by closing the ITM position at 3:46pm ET the day of expiration / position exit
- Commission to open, close early, or expire ITM is 1.00 USD per non-index underlying (eg: SPY, AAPL, etc.) contract
- Commission to open, close early, or expire ITM is 1.32 USD per index underlying (eg: SPX) contract
- Commission to expire worthless is 0.00 USD per contract (non-index and index)
- Commission to open or close non-option positions, if applicable, is 0.00 USD
- Slippage is calculated according to the slippage table
- Starting capital for short option backtests is adjusted in $1000 increments such that max margin utilization is between 80-100%, closest to 100%, of max margin utilization target
- Starting capital for long option backtests is adjusted in $1000 increments such that max drawdown is between 80-100%, closest to 100%, of max drawdown target
- For comprehensive details, visit the methodology page
Starting capital requirements were similar between the s1 signal and daily entry strategies.
s1 signal yielded a lower average margin utilization vs daily entry.
Hindsight bias was used to maximize Reg-T margin utilization for each strategy. This allows a “best case” scenario for the option strategy to outperform the benchmark.
Also displayed is the date in which each strategy experienced maximum margin utilization.
s1 signal had higher rates of premium capture vs daily entry.
The higher the delta the lower the premium capture.
s1 signal outperformed daily entry with regard to win rate.
The higher the delta the lower the win rate.
s1 signal underperformed daily entry with regard to average monthly return.
The higher the delta the greater the average monthly return.
Also displayed is the best and worst monthly returns for each strategy.
s1 signal outperformed daily entry with regard to max drawdown.
The higher the delta the greater the max drawdown.
Max Drawdown Duration
Max drawdown duration performance was mixed between s1 signal and daily entry.
The higher the delta the greater the max drawdown. 30D was an exception.
Average Trade Duration
The average trade duration for all strategies was 7 days.
Compound Annual Growth Rate
s1 signal underperformed daily entry with regard to compound annual growth rate.
The higher the delta the greater the CAGR.
s1 signal outperformed daily entry with regard to annual volatility.
The higher the delta the greater the annual volatility.
s1 signal outperformed daily entry with regard to sharpe ratio.
The higher the delta the lower the risk-adjusted return.
The 5D s1 signal strategy had the greatest risk-adjusted return among the option strategies.
Profit Spent on Commission
0.75% – the average percent of profits spent on commission across profitable option strategies.
s1 signal underperformed daily entry with regard to total P/L.
Higher delta strategies yielded greater total P/L than lower delta strategies.
All option strategies were eventually profitable.
The results of opening positions only on the days in which the s1 signal = TRUE is compelling. Let’s take a look under the hood and see what’s happening in a bit more detail. In the comparison we’ll look at buy/hold SPY, opening a 10D short put daily, opening a 10D short put only on days when s1 = TRUE, and opening a 10D short put only on days when s1 = FALSE.
Trading exclusively when the s1 signal = FALSE requires significantly more starting capital in order to successfully execute the strategy.
The s1 signal = TRUE strat has 53.8% ( 1798 / 3342 ) of the number of occurrences vs daily entry.
Looking at strictly the strategy income/expense, 84.6% ( 326,322 / 385,479 ) of the profits were captured when s1 = TRUE vs daily entry. Meanwhile, when s1 = FALSE the strategy barely returned more than the interest earned on 3mo treasuries.
Capital efficiency is calculated as ( ( strat return / benchmark return ) / ( strat occurrences / benchmark occurrences ) -1 ) * 100.
When we plug in the numbers we get:
- ( ( 326,322 / 385,479 ) / ( 1798 / 3342 ) -1 ) * 100
- 57% increase in capital efficiency
Risk adjusted return when s1 = TRUE is 62.4% greater than daily entry.
Max drawdown when s1 = TRUE is a fraction of all the other strats. Max drawdown duration is also materially shortened. These are both excellent attributes for mitigating sequence of returns risk.
Limiting order entry to days in which the s1 signal = TRUE yields comparable total return vs a daily-entry strategy while materially lowering max drawdown, max drawdown duration, annualized volatility, commission drag and consequently boosting premium capture and risk-adjusted return.
Think about it for a moment. An investor trades roughly half as often and generates nearly the same total return. There’s no need to swing at every pitch; open a position only when it’s worthwhile.
The s1 = TRUE signal, while suggesting order entry on roughly half the trading days since 2007, is not evenly distributed throughout time. Here’s a breakdown of participation rate by year:
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- a master-results spreadsheet
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